The diversity of physiographic, climatic and soil characteristics enables India to grow a large variety of horticultural crops. India is one of the world’s largest producers of vegetables. Some of them are explained here
It is grows successfully in tropical and subtropical parts mainly under rain-fed conditions, in Coorg, Wynaad tract, Palani hills and the Nilgiris in the south between elevations of 600 and 1,500 m. Orange can be grown successfully on a wide range of soils, but the ideal soil is medium or light loam with a slightly heavier subsoil. Heavy black soil and having good drainage, is also suitable.
In the hills and humid regions where planting is generally done on steep slopes, the land is properly terraced. In the plains, where the trees have to be irrigated, the land should be levelled. The places of production of oranges are Assam, Nagpur, Punjab, Wynaad, Coorg, Palani hills and the Nilgiris.
Nearly 50 per cent of the total area under fruits in the country is occupied by mango. The mango tree grows throughout the country from the sea level up to about 1,500 m. It is adaptable to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. It can withstand both dry conditions and heavy rainfall. The mangos is a native of monsoon lands and prefers a climate with 75-250 cm rainfall concentrated from June to September and mean shade temperatures of about 28 °C.
The maximum production of mangoes in India comes from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala among others. The important varieties grown include Chausa, Safeda, Langra, Dasheri of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Alphonso of Maharashtra and Goa, Banganapally of Andhra Pradesh, Totapari and Kesar of Gujarat, Rumani and Neelam of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Being a subtropical fruit grows well in dry climate having a short sharp winter and a long dry summer. They do not thrive in regions having humid summers. Grape grows best on light, friable, loamy soils with free drainage. Heavy soils are unsuitable.
There are different varieties grown in different regions. In the northern plains common varieties are Black Prince, Bedana, Foster’s seedling, Khandhari Dakh and Muscat of Alexandria and Perlette; in dry and temperate regions there are the Thompson seedless, Sultana and Kishmish white; in South India, Bangalore blue, Pachadraksha, Gulabi, Black Champa and Thompson seedless are grown; in western India, Cheema Sahebi, Anab-e-Shahi, and Thompson seedless are grown.
The main places of production of grapes are in Punjab, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Which is a moisture and heat loving plant, is broadly of two types—table and culinary. Among the former are Poovan in Chennai (also known as Karpura Chakkarekeli in Andhra Pradesh); Mortaman, Champa and Amritsagar in West Bengal; Champa and Mortaman in Assam and Orissa; Safed Velchi, Lai Velchi and Rajeli in Maharashtra. Among the culinary are Nandran, Monthan, Myndoli and Pacha Montha Bathis.
Bananas are mainly grown in the tropical parts where temperatures do not fall below 16 °C and rainfall below 150 cm. The coastal plains and the irrigated tracts in the peninsular parts provide ideal climate for banana cultivation. The plant grows best in the rich well drained soil with ample moisture and humus content.
The maximum production comes from three states—Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Is a very hard tree which can withstand heat and droughts? A cool winter induces heavy fruiting. Guava is one of the richest sources of dietary fiber.Besides immunity, guava do wonders to skin and also promotes fertility.Guava also helps in regulating metabolism which leads to weight loss.Guavas are also rich in manganese which helps the body to absorb other key nutrients from the food that we eat. Guavas benefits are credited due to the presence of folate, a mineral which helps promote fertility. The potassium in guavas helps normalise blood pressure levels as well. In fact, a banana and a guava contain almost the same amount of potassium. Since it contains about 80% of water it helps keep your skin hydrated. The benefits of huva are Immunity Booster, Lowers Risk of Cancer, Diabetes-Friendly, Heart Healthy and Improves Eyesight.
The total area under guava is about 30,000 hectare and Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under guava followed by Bihar.
Pineapple is tropical fruit. It is a good source of Vitamin A and B and rich in Vitamin C and calcium. It contains phosphorus and iron. It requires moderate temperature and high humidity. The optimum temperate range is 210C to 230C. At low temperature, no fruit bud differentiation takes place. A well-distributed rainfall of 150 c. m. per year is adequate.Crop is grown on light to medium soils. Soils should be well drained. Sandy loams, laterites and slightly acidic soils with pH 5.5 to 6.00 are suitable for crop cultivation.For planting rainy season is the best, planting is done at beginning of monsoon in dry region and at the end of the monsoon in high rainfall area. Planting is done either in flat beds or in shallow trenches. The planting distance in the single row system should be 25 x 60 x 90 cm and in double row system 25 x 30 x 90cm.
Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka are the important places of production of pineapple.
Crop is grown mainly in peninsular India both for its fruits as well as for its nuts, mainly for the latter. It was in 16th century that the cashew plantations were introduced in India by the Portuguese. However the first seeds were brought from Brazil.
Cashew cannot tolerate severe summers or winters. It requires a moderately high temperature of about 20 °C and a rainfall varying from 50 to 400 cm. It is not very exacting in soil requirements, as it grows even in very gravelly soils) Continued adequate soil moisture is however necessary for the success of a cashew plantation.
The fruits ripen from March to May but the season is extended in years when heavy rainfall is experienced in November-December. Cashew is commonly grown in the coastal districts of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra. There are plantations on the east coast of Tamil Nadu, Orissa, West Bengal and Pondicherry. Tripura produces some cashews, too.
Source: your article library